Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg

Oct 1, 2013 · The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of the reaction process, which makes the reaction process with characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying parameters and coupling. In this study, we proposed a state space modeling method to describe the dynamic mechanism model of the ...

Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg. Various anti-corrosion coatings used on commercially available NdFeB-type magnets were comparatively examined for their durability and suitability for magnet reprocessing by hydrogen-assisted recycling (HPMS). Layer thickness and structure were determined by systematic microstructural analysis, and a standardized corrosion test …

Introduction. In the fields of sintered magnets, the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) technique has been widely used. The as-melted NdFeB bulk material becomes brittle after HD and decrepitates into powders, as a result of the large volume expansion of the lattice of both the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix and the intergranular Nd-rich phase [1]. Hydrogen …

This means that NdFeB magnets are prone to galvanic corrosion, in particular, intergranular corrosion attack. The corrosion mechanism as well as the hydrogen decrepitation behaviour of microcrystalline (i.e. sintered) magnets has been studied extensively [11], [12], [13], [14].May 11, 2020 · Metallurgical simulation and evaluation of the resource efficiency of whole production processes are of key importance for sound environmental impact assessments. Exergy dissipation analysis is suitable to quantify the theoretical limits of a process and pinpoint hotspots for improvements along the value chain. Production of NdFeB permanent magnets is evaluated herein using a simulation-based ... The basic compound for most Neodymium magnets is Nd2Fe14B. In practice, the actual chemical reaction used can be more complicated. A commonly used reaction is: 57 Fe + 8 B + 10 Fe2O3 + 7.5 Nd2O3 ...The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling …Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …@article{osti_37277, title = {Hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets}, author = {Stiller, C and Roth, S and Binner, A}, abstractNote = {The kinetics of the hydrogen absorption and desorption behavior of a NdFeB sintered magnet is studied. Hydrogenation at temperatures above 200 C is used to crumble the Nd-enriched phase. …

The Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) is used as an alternative method of powder preparation in the manufacturing process of sintered Nd Fe B magnets [ 1]. During the HD process a NdFeB-type material is hydrogenated by gaseous hydrogen at atmospheric (or elevated) pressure at room (or elevated) temperature.The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], [4].NdFeB-based alloys and magnets also react readily with hydrogen, and this has been exploited by the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process [4]. During HD the material is exposed to hydrogen (at room temperature) and initially the Nd-rich phase absorbs hydrogen (represented approximately by Eq.magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In this For the second type, three popular techniques, hydrogen decrepitation (HD), HDDR, and MS are applied to produce magnetic powders with the waste magnets. Note that the resultant powders prepared from the three techniques are single crystal powders, textured polycrystalline powders, and random aligned polycrystalline powders, respectively. ...Electrolytic Hydrogen Decrepitation of NdFeB Magnets Under Ambient Conditions. V. Kaplan, Y. Feldman, …, I. Lubomirsky. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy • Volume 8, Issue 3 • 1 September 2022. 1 citation; Scopus record. Article. 2D Pb-Halide Perovskites Can Self-Heal Photodamage Better than 3D Ones.For the second type, three popular techniques, hydrogen decrepitation (HD), HDDR, and MS are applied to produce magnetic powders with the waste magnets. Note that the resultant powders prepared from the three techniques are single crystal powders, textured polycrystalline powders, and random aligned polycrystalline powders, respectively. ...

Due to the high strength and very compact structure of sintered NdFeB magnets, hydrogen decrepitation is a necessary step to break down the magnet mass. On the other hand, the resin-bonded NdFeB magnets have very low strength and can be easily crushed by heating and removing the resin and epoxy used in their fabrication. 39. 3.At these elevated tempera- tures the decrepitation process proceeded rapidly and particles were ejected from the sample on all sides, V.A. Yartys et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 50-54 53 Fig. 2. Surface of a plate ejected from the [001 ] aligned sintered Nd16FeTaB8 magnet at the first stage of hydrogen decrepitation.Semantic Scholar extracted view of "A study of the effects of the addition of various amounts of Cu to sintered NdFeB magnets" by O. Ragg et al. ... from an Nd/sub 17/-Fe/sub 76.5/-B/sub 5/-Cu/sub 1.5/ alloy by a two-step heat treatment at 1370 K and 870 K following hydrogen decrepitation (HD)-processing. …The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d < 100 µm. Adding a ball milling step resulted in full density …

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The MMG has been active in the field of rare earth alloys and processing of permanent magnets using hydrogen for over 40 years. Originated by Professor Emeritus Rex Harris, the hydrogen decrepitation method, which is used to reduce NdFeB alloys to a powder, is now ubiquitously employed in worldwide magnet processing. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Volume 24, Issues 2–3, 1 March 1999, Pages 257-261. Application of hydrogen vibration milling in theprocessing of NdFeB and (Nd, Pr)FeB permanent magnets. Author links open overlay panel R.S Mottram 1, V Yartys 2, P.W Guegan 1, I.r Harris 1. Show more.Mar 1, 2019 · The Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) is used as an alternative method of powder preparation in the manufacturing process of sintered Nd Fe B magnets [ 1]. During the HD process a NdFeB-type material is hydrogenated by gaseous hydrogen at atmospheric (or elevated) pressure at room (or elevated) temperature. Investigating the properties of recycled NdFeB magnets. We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE Fe B (RE Abstract 2 14 = Nd, Pr. . . ) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of decommissioned magnets and the magnetic properties of the consolidated magnets.

Novel hydrogen decrepitation behaviors of (La, Ce)-Fe-B strips. Jiaying Jin G. Bai +4 authors M. Yan. ... Doping with Dy/Tb is a current solution to improve the coercivity and the operating temperature of NdFeB magnets, by increasing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the (Nd, Dy/Tb)2Fe14B (2:14:1) …calcium [12] and hydrogen decrepitation [1,13-19]. Many of these are under current development. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is based on the selective synthesis of …Received 21st February 2020, Accepted 5th March 2020. meric portion. The PA-free magnet powder was found to retain >90% of its original magnetic properties. Two epoxy-bonded magnets produced with this recycled magnet powder showed magnetic properties. DOI: 10.1039/d0gc00647e. @article{osti_37277, title = {Hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets}, author = {Stiller, C and Roth, S and Binner, A}, abstractNote = {The kinetics of the hydrogen absorption and desorption behavior of a NdFeB sintered magnet is studied. Hydrogenation at temperatures above 200 C is used to crumble the Nd-enriched phase. …An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. The procedure has proved to be very successful for both Nd-Fe-B (Neomax) alloys and the ND-Dy-Fe-Nb-B high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent coercivities when …High-temperature demagnetization can, however, cause melting of components, e.g., plastics, glue, etc. Hydrogen decrepitation (Table 8.3), a more efficient alternative, has been suggested for processing of HDDs [34], [35]. The NdFeB magnets absorb hydrogen, expanding in volume with about 5%, which causes breaking into …Feb 5, 2009 · Abstract. Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density and in ... Nov 15, 1988 · A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. The procedure has proved to be very successful for both NdFeB (Neomax) alloys and the NdDyFeNbB high coercivity alloys.

Abstract. In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR) processes are considered together with the characteristics of the magnets produced by …

Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M Zakotnik, E Devlin, IR Harris, AJ Williams. Journal of iron and steel research, international 13, 289-295, 2006. 57: 2006: Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies on value recovery from hard disk drives.Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the …The hydrogen-absorbing NdFeB powder absorbs heat in the plasma and rapidly decomposes and dehydrogenates. At the same time, in the dehydrogenation process, the particles are cracked and broken to form fine NdFeB powder due to rapid heat absorption and release of a large amount of hydrogen, and the NdFeB powder is at a high …Over the last ten years several groups have been carrying out research into metal injection moulding (MIM) of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) powders to produce isotropic or …Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …Abstract. This paper reports the desorption of hydrogen from NdFeB powder, and unmilled material, produced using hydrogen decrepitation as a pre-milling technique, investigated using a mass spectrometer to monitor the hydrogen partial pressure in the system as the sample was heated under vacuum from room temperature to …

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The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7].Dec 25, 2017 · Recycling of Nd-Fe-B magnets is one of the few solutions to alleviate the supply risks of certain rare earth elements (REE) such as Nd and Dy. One of the most promising solutions with regards to extraction of end-of-life (EOL) magnets is to apply hydrogen decrepitation and to physically separate the Nd-Fe-B as a demagnetized hydrogenated powder. magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In thisSep 17, 2021 · It is therefore expected that cracks are decreased by performing hydrogen decrepitation at higher temperature. To confirm this, the relationship between T dec (23°C–600°C) and the crack density D c was investigated. Here, D c was estimated by dividing the crack length in an SEM image by the cross-sectional area of the same image. So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ... The reaction speed in the typical hydrogenation run (Fig. 1b, 1d) is limited only by the rate of the gas diffusion into the sample.When the reaction proceeds in deficiency of hydrogen (Fig. 1b) only a part of the Nd transforms into neodymium hydride NdH y as it follows from the diffraction pattern displayed in Fig. 2d.That pattern includes …Mar 1, 2016 · The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], [4]. Various efforts have been made in the past for direct recycling of spent NdFeB magnet using hydrogen decrepitation followed by resintering method (Zakotnik et al., 2009; Herraiz et al., 2016). In ... ….

The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd 1 6 Fe 7 6 B 8 and stoichiometric composition Nd 11.8 Fe 82.3 B 5.9 have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. The influence of the initial microstructures of the alloys on …May 5, 2023 · The first is the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process, which is already used in the primary production of NdFeB magnets to convert the alloy into powder form before further comminution. 46 The second process, named HDDR, which consists of two different steps, namely hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) and desorption–recombination (DR), was ... In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaksStep 3: Hydrogen Decrepitation. Rare earth elements have hydrogen absorption effect. NdFeB magnet alloy sheets are placed in a vacuum tube rotary furnace. As hydrogen gas is filled, rare earth-rich phase in the grain boundary of NdFeB magnet alloy absorbs hydrogen gas. After hydrogen absorption saturated, the rare earth-rich phase turns to ...2.1. Introduction of this section. HDDR treatment is used to obtain Nd-Fe-B magnet powders with good magnetic anisotropy and high coercivity [6,8,19].Therefore, HDDR treatment has been used to produce anisotropic bonded magnets for high-performance motors in automobiles and electronic devices [20,21].In typical HDDR …Hydrogen Decrepitation is a known process for breaking rare earth alloys such as NdFeB into powder, as described by Zakotnik et al. (“Hydrogen Decrepitation and Recycling of Sintered NdFeB-type Sintered Magnets”, Proceedings of 19 th International Workshop on Rare Earth Permanent Magnets & Their Applications; pp 289-295). Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg, Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M Zakotnik, E Devlin, IR Harris, AJ Williams. Journal of iron and steel research, international 13, 289-295, 2006. 57: 2006: Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies on value recovery from hard disk drives., In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and …, This work could have implications with regard to the mechanism of hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets during the well-established recycling process described by Walton et al. [19] and [20]. During this process, scrap sintered NdFeB magnets are damaged in air to expose a clean surface suitable for hydrogen decrepitation. …, A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. The procedure has proved to be very successful for both Nd-Fe-B (Neomax) alloys and the ND-Dy-Fe-Nb-B high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent coercivities when …, Hydrogen Decrepitation is a known process for breaking rare earth alloys such as NdFeB into powder, as described by Zakotnik et al. (“Hydrogen Decrepitation and Recycling of Sintered NdFeB-type Sintered Magnets”, Proceedings of 19 th International Workshop on Rare Earth Permanent Magnets & Their Applications; pp 289-295)., H 2 can be used to extract NdFeB magnets from the automotive scrap, however, many challenges in the recycling are presented.. The importance of design choices, having negative impact on the recycling, are investigated in this work, so can be avoided. • Higher Dy additions slow down the kinetics of the hydrogen decrepitation …, NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - Decrepitation -D..., In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the …, The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d < 100 µm. Adding a ball milling step resulted in full density …, calcium [12] and hydrogen decrepitation [1,13-19]. Many of these are under current development. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is based on the selective synthesis of neodymium hydrides though the reaction of hydrogen gas with neodymium located in the Nd-Fe-B magnet. HD process was originally designed and patented by Harris et al. …, (DOI: 10.1016/S0925-8388(99)00443-0) The corrosion and degradation of Nd–Fe–B magnets by hydrogen from moisture in the environment has been termed the Negative Harris Effect. In order to provide more information on this phenomenon, different density Nd–Fe–B magnets have been subjected to vacuum desorption, XRD and …, Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets Zakotnik M, Devlin E, Harris IR, Williams AJ ... Environmental degradation of NdFeB magnets Yan GL, McGuiness PJ, Farr JPG, Harris IR Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2009;478:188-92 Oxidation of NdFeB-type magnets modified with additions of Co, Dy, Zr and V ..., The intrinsic magnetic coercivity (Hci) of Nd‐Fe‐B‐based permanent magnet material is profoundly affected by hydrogen absorbed during the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for producing anisotropic powders from bulk anisotropic hot‐deformed MAGNEQUENCH (MQ) magnets. Hydrogen (H) content and x‐ray diffraction …, Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) has been used as an efficient and economical method in producing coarse NdFeB powder. This article studied the effects of hydrogen on the Nd-Dy-Fe-B magnets, such as HD ..., In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process., The HD-process converts the magnets possible to recover the hard magnetic powder from a to a powder due to the expansion of the material on particular device (e.g. hard disk drive or electric motor) hydrogen absorption. Recycling of NdFeB magnets by by simply exposing the complete system to a hydrogen this means has been proposed by Rivoirard ..., Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The resultant powder has been subsequently processed in one of two ways in order to produce ..., This work could have implications with regard to the mechanism of hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets during the well-established recycling process described by Walton et al. [19] and [20]. During this process, scrap sintered NdFeB magnets are damaged in air to expose a clean surface suitable for hydrogen decrepitation. …, The powders were produced by hydrogen decrepitation and on heating, hydrogen evolution occurred in two stages: firstly from the matrix phase (~170 ~ and then from the neodymium-rich phase (350-750 ~ The neodymium-rich phase melted at ~630 ~ and no significant microstructural changes occurred below this temperature., NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - …, Each magnet was exposed to hydrogen and the decrepitation behaviour observed. The anisotropic samples were found to decrepitate exclusively from the ends of the rods whereas the isotropic magnets were attacked by the hydrogen at all points on their surface. Bulk corrosion studies in steam gave comparable results, the oriented sample …, These magnets were identical in every way apart from the orientation of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains. Each magnet was exposed to hydrogen and the decrepitation behaviour observed. The anisotropic samples were found to decrepitate exclusively from the ends of the rods whereas the isotropic magnets were attacked by the hydrogen at all …, The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling …, Due to the high strength and very compact structure of sintered NdFeB magnets, hydrogen decrepitation is a necessary step to break down the magnet mass. On the other hand, the resin-bonded NdFeB magnets have very low strength and can be easily crushed by heating and removing the resin and epoxy used in their fabrication. 39. 3., magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In this , T D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The Use of Hydrogen to Separate and Recycle Neodymium-Iron-Boron-type Magnets from Electronic Waste A. Walton a, Han Yi , N.A. Rowson b, J.D. Speight , V.S.J. Mann a, R.S. Sheridan , A. Bradshaw a, I.R. Harris a, A.J. Williams School of Metallurgy and Materials a and School of Chemical Engineering b, …, Semantic Scholar extracted view of "A study of the effects of the addition of various amounts of Cu to sintered NdFeB magnets" by O. Ragg et al. ... from an Nd/sub 17/-Fe/sub 76.5/-B/sub 5/-Cu/sub 1.5/ alloy by a two-step heat treatment at 1370 K and 870 K following hydrogen decrepitation (HD)-processing. …, Jan 1, 2018 · High-temperature demagnetization can, however, cause melting of components, e.g., plastics, glue, etc. Hydrogen decrepitation (Table 8.3), a more efficient alternative, has been suggested for processing of HDDs [34], [35]. The NdFeB magnets absorb hydrogen, expanding in volume with about 5%, which causes breaking into coarse granules or powder. , NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - Decrepitation -D..., 0.5% -1%. Dysprosium (Dy) 0.8% -1.2%. The method of manufacture of Neodymium Iron Boron magnets is as follows: The Neodymium metal element is initially separated from refined Rare Earth oxides in an electrolytic furnace. The “Rare Earth” elements are lanthanoids (also called lanthanides) and the term arises from the uncommon oxide …, Various anti-corrosion coatings used on commercially available NdFeB-type magnets were comparatively examined for their durability and suitability for magnet reprocessing by hydrogen-assisted recycling (HPMS). Layer thickness and structure were determined by systematic microstructural analysis, and a standardized corrosion test …, NdFeB-based alloys and magnets also react readily with hydrogen, and this has been exploited by the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process [4]. During HD the material is exposed to hydrogen (at room temperature) and initially the Nd-rich phase absorbs hydrogen (represented approximately by Eq., The Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase is the main component of sintered NdFeB magnets. The ternary NdFeB phase diagram (Fig. 5.1(a)) shows that there are five phases in addition to the Nd 2 Fe 14 B (T1) phase: Fe, Nd 2 Fe 17, Nd 5 Fe 17, Nd 1.1 Fe 4 B 4 (T2), and Nd.Sintered NdFeB magnets are produced by the liquid phase sintering process and the …